Cover: The annotation and curation of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequences. This cover is an abstract representation of the annotation and curation process for rRNA sequences. On the left, a ribosome is shown in the process of translating a blue strand of mRNA. On the right, a cellular regulatory network is depicted, with nodes that are dependent on ribosome function shown in red. The wisps of smoke connecting the two sides of the image represent the computerized annotation and curation process for the positive and negative strands of DNA that code for rRNA. The two interlocking arrows at the top represent DNA coding regions for rRNA subunits, which often go unannotated or corrected by curators. The three interlocking arrows at the bottom represent possible open reading frames (ORFs) that could code for regulatory polypeptides at the same time that they code for rRNA. Dual coding is a rare but not unreported phenomenon that is frequently misannotated, particularly for rRNA. The misannotation of dual coding regions for rRNA and polypeptides not only frustrates drug discovery, but can lead to a false positive rate approaching 90% in metatranscriptomic studies, since they attempt to infer protein function from RNA transcripts. Cover Art designed and produced by: Ramón Andrade, 3Dciencia, http://3dciencia.com/. For further information, please see the article by H. J. Tripp et al., Nucleic Acids Res., 2011, 39, 8792–8802.